Monday, 12 June 2017

Mary - Acids and Bases

For one Period of science we were given a task about Acids And Bases. We were to complete the questions that were about the mini paragraphs , which were all about the different parts of acids and Bases. Here is what I have learnt so far:
Questions about acids
1.              Name 3 naturally occurring acids. Citric Acid, Lactic Acid and formic Acid.
2.              Name 3 “artificial” acids. Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid.
3.              Why are acids dangerous? How should all acids be treated? Acids are corrosive, and attack many materials including flesh. Acids should be kept away very well from the eyes, mouth and any broken skin.
4.              What is the difference between a concentrated acid and a dilute acid? Diluted acids are solutions that contain a little amount acid and a lot of waterl. Concentrated acids are solutions that contain a lot of acid and not much water.
5.              Give two reactions by which acids may be recognised. Their reaction with magnesium metal and sodium carbonate causes both materials to dissolve in acids with vigorous fizzing.
6.              What element is present in all acids? Hydrogen.

7.              What is the difference between strong acids and weak acids? When acid reacts some or all of the hydrogen is given up. Strong acids release hydrogen very easily, while weak acids find it difficult to release the hydrogen.

Questions about bases

8.              What is a base? They are the chemical ‘opposites’ of acids.
9.              What is the special name for a base that is soluble in water? Alkalis.
10.            Give the names and uses of two alkalis found in the home. Ammonia Solutions in bath and sink cleaners, calcium hydroxide(lime) for adding acid soils, and sodium hydrogen carbonate(bicarbonate of soda) in cooking and medicines.
11.     What ions do bases always produce in solution? Hydroxide Ions.

Questions about neutralisation

1.              What two compounds are formed when an acid reacts with a base? Salt and Water
2.              Why is the reaction called a neutralisation reaction? Because the products are neither acidic nor basic.
3.              Give two examples of neutralisation reactions in everyday life. Tooth decay and Sharp pain in your Stomach.
4.              Which strong acid occurs naturally in your stomach? Hydrochloric Acid.

Questions about indicators

5.              What is an indicator? An indicator is a chemical compound that changes colour and structure when exposed to certain conditions.
6.              How could you make an indicator in the laboratory? By warming red cabbage leaves with a mixture of water and industrial methylated spirits.
7.              Give the colour of litmus with acids and alkalis. Red in acid solution and Blue in Alkaline.

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